Toxins and Antitoxins systems are a set of two or more closely linked genes that are together encoded with both a "toxin" protein and a corresponding to "antitoxin". When these systems are contained on plasmids and transferable to genetic elements. These ensure that only the daughter cells are inherit the plasmid survive after cell division. Toxin antitoxin systems are gaining more and more attendance as key the modulators in bacterial lifestyle. TA systems were shown to be widespread in bacteria. The novel families of TA systems are continuously reported in the literature.  Such as ranging from selfish entities to systems that play major roles in bacterial persistence, biofilm formation, or virulence. Nevertheless the current picture of Toxin antitoxin system seems to be far from complete.


 Microbiology has extreme environments which produces deep seas, cold seas and hyper arid deserts hasto produce a range of complex natural products with high biological activity.The desert and marine samples from which you will isolate unique bacterial and fungal strains. Cultivating these under different conditions gives rise to varied metabolic profiles. We have new facilities for cultivating bacteria at very high pressures to mimic deep sea environments. You will use a range of chromatographic techniques to isolate the compounds from these cultured microbes. The chemical structures using spectroscopic techniques followed by testing the compounds in a range of biological assays to ascertain their biological activity and potential for use against human diseases.


Molecular and cellular biology are no longer discrete with areas but vital tools and an integrated part of current microbiology. The revolution of molecular biology andgenetic of a growing number of pathogenic and model bacteria have been fully sequencedwith immense implications for all future understanding of microorganisms at the molecular level. Cellular microbiology is an exciting of new interface discipline which bridges the gap between microbiology and cell biology
New technologies are enablingfrom microbiology results to be available in minutes or hours rather than days
Immunoassays have benefits of technical simplicity, Rapidty, specificity, and cost effectiveness but often have poor sensitivity and low neagativepredicitive value
An ever increasing range of viruses, bacteria, fungi and protozoa can be detected and characterised by molecular biological methods

Public Health microbiology is a speciality which spans the fields of human, animal, food, water and environmental microbiology with a focus on human health and disease. It requires research scientists, epidemiologists, and clinicians to generate, integrate, analyse and communicate epidemic intelligence. Public Health microbiology supports an monitoring of known and emerging threats and facilitates the evaluation of effective interventions


Biodiversity is one of the Earth’s biggest treasures. Microbes despite their small size and have a large impact on all lives and therefore understanding their role in the environment as important as to the maintenance of a planet as preserving the diversity of plants and animals.

Systematics has taxonomy as a primary tool to understand organism relationships with other living things, which can be understood and without being studied it and described in sufficient detail to classify it correctly.  Systematic can be used in other word to understand the evolutionary history of life on Earth.

Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are called “the good” microorganisms because they benefit the digestive system. They may also help to treat other conditions and diseases including skin infections and allergies. Probiotics are living microscopic (very small) organisms that can help your gut health. The most common probiotic bacteria which come under two groups Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium. Probiotics can now be found as a pill or powder, or in some foods, such as yogurt.


The application of microorganisms in the industrial processing to produce high value of drugs, chemicals, foods and other products is known as industrial microbiology. Industrial microbiology includes the microorganisms to manufacture food and industrial products in large quantities. Production of various antibioticspenicillinfermentation, production of bio pesticidesmicrobial inoculantssynthesis of amino acidorganic solvents are some of the applications of microbes in the industries


  •  Industrial Enzymes
  •  Food industry
  •  Brewing industry
  •  Cosmetic industry
  •  Leather industry
  •  Dairy industry
  •  Industrial Applications of Microbes


Microbes play a major role in the production of fermented of food such as cheese, yogurt, Bread, Wine etc., Food processing is a transformation of raw food materials into food and other forms. These can also be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary involves the conversion of raw materials from agriculture to a livestock and secondary involves in process of creating food from a ready to use ingredient whereas tertiary involves the production of processed foods. The beneficial microbes are exploited in the fermentative production, processing, and preservation of many foods and beverages. Spoilage microorganisms cost of food producers, processors, and consumers millions of dollars annually in lost products. These are the best sources of probiotics.
  • Microbes in food
  • Probiotics and prebiotics
  • Fermentation process
  • Microbial Agriculture Industry
  • Fermenters and Fermentation
  • Beneficial Microorganism
  • Beneficial Microorganism


A scientific study that deals with the discipline of algae is known as physiology, this comes under the sub disciplinary of botany. Bacterial physiology is a scientific discipline that concerns the life supporting the functions and processes of bacteria, which allow bacterial cells to grow and reproduce. Microbial pathogens also include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites and together for a significant percentage of acute and chronic human diseases. In addition to understand the mechanisms of various pathogens cause from human disease.
  •      Pathology of infections
  •      Molecular pathology
  •      Clinical Pathology
  •      Veterinary Pathology
  •      Advancements in diagnostic pathology
  •      Vector borne transmission
The Clinical Infections and Vaccines (CIV)  will cover a range of relevant topics on Infectious diseases and their impact on human health. The latest information on common healthcare and infections is such as Clostridium difficile, Pneumonia, and complicated urinary tract infections and others will be featured in this track. The science of track works to bring together angstrom level discovery and clinical research to reduce the burden of infectious diseases around the globe. 
Clinical Infections and Vaccines includes
  • Clinical Studies of Adult Infectious Diseases, including Clinical Trials and Diseases caused by Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Prions or Parasites
  • Infection Prevention and Control: Healthcare-associated and Surgical Infections and Clinical Epidemiology
  • Global Health
  • Transplant Infectious Diseases
  • Pediatric Infectious Diseases
  • Vaccines and Immunization Science
A microbiology that involves the organisms used in the manufacture of pharmaceutics and drugs. This involves the aspects such as research and development of anti-infective drug. The manufacturing pharmaceutical and medical products such as human growth hormone, insulin etc., Microorganisms are used to detect mutagenic and carcinogenic of the respective drug.  It includes the investigation of microorganisms related to produce the pharmaceuticals for e.g. limiting the quantity of microorganisms in a procedure situation to barring microorganisms and microbial side-effects like exotoxin and endotoxin from water and other beginning materials, and guaranteeing the completed pharmaceutical item is sterile.
  • Beneficial Soil Microbes
  • Immunobiotics
  • Plant Beneficial Microbes
The biology is to develop technologies and products for the welfare of human beings is known as Biotechnology. It has different applications in different fields such as Therapeutics, Diagnostics, Waste Management, Genetically Modified Crops, Processed Food, Energy Production, etc. Biotechnology has a particularly vital when it comes to the development a miniscule and chemical tools as many as on the tools of biotechnology. It uses to exist at the cellular level, in a bid to understand more regarding biotechnology.  Many types and examples and its applications.
  •  Biotechnology Applications in Agriculture
  •  Biotechnology Applications in Medicine
  •  Biotechnology in Diagnosis
  •  Biotechnology and its Application in Aquaculture Fisherie
  •  Biotechnology in Production of Antibiotics
Viral  infections are quite prevalent to most of the typically seen are common cold, hepatitis, influenza, measles, rabies, Dengue, diarrheal, AIDS, polio, smallpox, cold sores and genital herpes. The Study of various ways through which viruses affect individuals are specified as viral pathogenesis. The preview of the disease and infection caused by the virus is virulence. When a virus host the immune system starts producing specific and impromptu antibodies that binds the virus thereby neutralizing its virulence or kills them
Virology, Viral Pathogens and Associated Diseases includes
  • Virology, Metabolism and Genetics
  • Viral diseases and host defences
  • Mechanisms of Virus are entry, Assembly, Protein Translation, Transcription and Replication, Pathogenesis
  • Preventive vaccines and Antiviral drugs
  • Molecular biology research and Viral therapy
  • Applications of Virus
The Profession of Microbiology (POM) is to track everybody's track. No matter which area of microbiology you work in and what stage in your career you're at the topics covered in POM are things you can use right away in your own practice from improving your communication and teaching skills to getting out in the community and being an advocate for the microbial sciences
Profession of Microbiology includes
Microbiology Education, Communication, and Outreach
Microbiology Research and Policy Environments
History of Microbiology

The Oral microbiology is a study of the microorganisms of the oral cavity and their interactions between oral microorganisms or with the host. The environment present in the human mouth that allows the growth of characteristic microorganisms found. It provides a source of water and nutrients and as well as a moderate temperature. Oral bacteria form communities on distinctly different surfaces, such as hard enamel and cementum, as well as on soft epithelial cells. The composition of the resident oral microflora shows a local variations in composition on distinct surfaces (e.g., tongue, cheek, teeth) due to differences in key environmental conditions


  • Dental plaque
  • Dental caries
  • Periodontal disease
  • Cell-cell communication
  • Vaccination against oral infections
  • Role in non-oral disease
  • Other microbiota


Microorganisms are very small type of forms of life that can sometimes live as single cells although many also form colonies of cells. A microscope is usually needed to see different individual cells of these organisms. Which many more microorganisms exist in topsoil where food sources are plentiful than in subsoil. Soil microorganisms have another direct importance for humans; they are the source of most of the antibiotic medicines we use to fight diseases
  • Bacteria
  • Actinomycetes
  • Fungi
  • Protozoa
  • Nematodes

Immunobiotics is a supplement of the combines prebiotics and probiotics with immunoglobulins to boost immunity and promote intestinal health. Immunoglobulin is particularly a beneficial for those who find that they are more susceptible to infections. Those with immune issues and deficiencies, infections, bacterial and viral diseases, colds, flus as well as those suffering from diarrhea, stress and fatigue will find ImmunoBiotics to be an excellent addition to their health regimen. ImmunoBiotics is also an ideal of supplemental protein source for meal replacement products in weight loss. For best results, ImmunoBiotics should be a part of a complete, balanced nutritional program.


A composition and physiology of microbial community in the environment. Microbes act as a special characterization the biosphere as it is a backbone of the environment. Environment includes the air, soil and water that are present. This also states the microbes that are present in that atmosphere. Microbes can either live in the extreme cold temperature or in the extreme high temperature.  Also, as the atmosphere microbes plays an important role in the geochemical cycle. Environmental microbiology is the scientific study of microorganisms in the environment. This discipline includes air microbiology, soil microbiology and water microbiology.

Microbial Ecology Group is aiming to identify the microorganisms that can carry out carbon and nitrogen turnover from soils particularly from forest soils it characterize thes processes and identifies  how they are regulated under different environmental scenarios. A major focus is on symbiotic interactions between fungi and plants roots. The parasitic interactions between fungi and soil living nematodes. Evolution of symbiotic and parasitic fungi is examined using tools of genomics and functional genomics.

Genetic engineering is the deliberate manipulation of DNA using techniques in a laboratory to alter genes in organisms. Even if the organisms are altered are not microbes, but the substances and techniques are often taken from microbes and adapted for use in more complex organisms. It has been very difficult for people to clearly differentiate between genetic engineering and biotechnology as they are usually used for  interchangeably. Genetic Engineering is therefore considered as an extension of traditional biotechnology defined as the use of living organism or their parts to provide goods and services thereby improving the well-being of humans.