Materials Science and Engineering (MSE) combines with engineering, physics and chemistry principles to solve an real world problems associated with nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, energy, manufacturing and other major engineering disciplines
Materials scientists work with diverse types of materials like metals, polymers, ceramics, liquid crystals, composites for a broad range of applications
Nanomaterial’s is based on metal oxides (nanostructured and Nano dispersed) are a diverse class of materials in terms of electronic structure and physical, chemical, and electromagnetic properties. The application of metal oxide nanomaterials and nanocomposites based on which is becoming increasingly popular in applied ecology, especially where they can be used as adsorbents and photocatalysts as well as a material for the manufacture of environmental monitoring devices.
. Chemistry of Nanoscience and Technology
. Carbon Nanotubes and their Nanocomposites
. Graphene- and Graphene Sheets-Based Nanocomposites
. Nano composites of Polyhedral Oligomeric Silsesquioxane and Their Applications
. Zeolites and Composites
. Bio-Based Nanomaterials and Their Bio-Nanocomposites
. Metal–Organic Frameworks (MOFs) and Their Composites
. Nanocomposites Based on Cellulose, Hemicelluloses, and Lignin
Polymer Nano composites have great a potential in different biomedical applications. Which biodegradation is an important aspect in such applications which can be controlled through the incorporation of suitable nanomaterials in desired polymer matrices. The synthesis of polymer and nanocomposites is an integral aspect of polymer nanotechnology. Hence it has a lot of applications depending upon the inorganic material present in the polymers. The one of the easiest and less time consuming methods for the synthesis of polymer nanocomposites
Nanoparticles of noble metals are plasmonic materials but the pure metals have high non-irradiative ohmic losses at optical frequencies leading to large number of absorption and unwanted heating effects. Additionally spherical silicon nanoparticles (NPs) have a unique optical system with a high refractive index dielectric nanostructure .Various types of nanoplasmonic devices were fabricated using topâ€down method such as electron beam lithography, electroplating and focused ion beam techniques. The substrates were investigated after depositing the molecules from dye to protein using chemisorptions techniques. The theoretical simulations were also performed on these model nanostructures in order to understand the electrical field distribution
2-dimensional (2D) materials have been at the forefront of materials research in recent years due to exotic electrical and optical properties and interesting mechanical properties deriving from their atomically thin dimensions. The isolation and synthesis of a range of atomically thin two-dimensional (2D) materials opened a new exciting platform to layer-by-layer materials and hybrid device engineering that enables the exploration and tailoring of superior or hitherto unknown properties and that promises a range of new technologies.
Micro has many fabrication processes each with procedural advantages and disadvantages. Laser-based methods which have unique advantages over others are used in the area of "micro-and Nano scale fabrication". Due to non-linear optical effects (multiple photon absorption) it is possible to produce 3-D structures with a high level of resolution which is not possible with other methods.
Nano scale material or Nano materials are materials where at least one relevant length sacle is within the range of nanometers. These materials usually have very different properties from their bulk counterparts due to the importance of quantum and surface boundary effects.
Electrical optical, magnetic and mechanical properties of metals, semiconductor, ceramics and polymers. The role of bonding and structure ( crystalline, defect, energy band and microstructure) and composition in influencing and controlling, physical properties which draw from a verity of applications including semiconductor diodes, optical , deteors, sensors, thin flims,biomaterials,composites and cellular material. The Electrical properties of a material are which determine ability of material to be suitable for a particular Electrical Engineering.
Some of the types of Electrical properties of engineering materials are listed below.
The materials science goes well beyond understanding the properties of materials and how those properties can be applied. Materials science must also be developing cost effective techniques to synthesize process and fabricate advanced materials that can meet the demands of a rapidly changing commercial marketplace. Materials Science and Engineering are dedicated to this mission through a wide variety of programs that include:
Scientists and engineers are increasingly turning to nature for inspiration. The solutions arrived at by natural selection are often a good starting point in the search for answers to scientific and technical problems. Designing and building bio inspired devices or systems can tell us more about the original animal or plant model. The following areas are particularly aligned with the current materials research at Cornell: bio inspired composites, engineered protein films for adhesion, lubrication and sensing applications, molecular tools for in-vitro and in-vivo imaging (C-Dots, FRET), as well as biomaterials for tissue engineering and drug delivery.
The progress of science and engineering in the second half of the twentieth century has advanced many worthy goals beginning with the deafens of freedom and has fostered understanding of the world and its inhabitants and cosmos. The Advance material research and development are stands out both a twentieth century phenomenon and a endeavor that bridges often disparate objectives of understanding nature and of ensuring freedom.
A new challenge when as a debtor nation we must compete vastly better against the product and innovations of a smartening world and it is wise to review our progress in materials science and engineering
Particle growth by soft chemical and solution crystallization methods, thin film growth by metal-organic decomposition and pulsed laser deposition, solid free form fabrication and joining of ceramics, deformation processing of amorphous metal alloys, metal alloy casting and solidification processes, ion implantation and laser processing of metals and ceramics.
Nanolithography, nanofabrication, and Nano manipulation of materials, high temporal resolution scanning probe microscopy measurements of materials properties at the Nano scale, assembly of low dimensional nanostructured materials including quantum dots, nanowires and other novel structures, studies of defects, interfaces, and related Nano scale phenomena in metals, ceramics and semiconductors using analytical and high-resolution electron microscopy techniques.
Materials Silicon carbide is used as a raw material for blue LEDs and is tested for use in some semiconductor devices that might withstand high operating temperatures and high levels of ionizing radiation. Several indium compounds--indium antimonite, indium arsenide, and indium phosphide--are being used in solid-state laser diodes and LEDs. Selenium sulfide is under study for the manufacturing of photo-voltaic solar cells. All of these compounds are produced mainly in the US, Asia-Pacific, China, and Europe.
A semiconductor material has an electrical conductivity value falling between that of a conductor, such as metallic copper, and an insulator, such as glass. Its resistance decreases as its temperature increases, which is behavior opposite to that of a metal. Its conducting properties may be altered in useful ways by the deliberate, controlled introduction of impurities ("doping") into the crystal structure. Where two differently-doped regions exist in the same crystal, a semiconductor junction is created. The behavior of carriers which include electrons, ions and electron holes at these junctions is the basis of diodes, transistors and all modern electronics. Some examples of semiconductors are silicon, germanium, gallium arsenide, and elements near the so-called "metalloid staircase" on the periodic table.
Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements, their inter-metallic compounds, and their mixtures, which are called alloys. Metallurgy is used to separate metals from their ore. Metallurgy is also the technology of metals: the way in which science is applied to the production of metals, and the engineering of metal components for usage in products for consumers and manufacturers. The production of metals involves the processing of ores to extract the metal they contain, and the mixture of metals, sometimes with other elements, to produce alloys. Metallurgy is distinguished from the craft of metalworking, although metalworking relies on metallurgy, as medicine relies on medical science, for technical advancement. The science of metallurgy is subdivided into chemical metallurgy and physical metallurgy.
Metallurgy is subdivided into
. Ferrous Metallurgy (Black Metallurgy)
. Non- Ferrous Metallurgy (Colored Matallurgy)